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The Processor or Socket is one physical processor, the one that you can see on the motherboard, so which can consist of one or more nodes. A physical processor is the same as a socket, or a CPU.
Now, within the Processor, you have the NUMA nodes. The NUMA node is set of logical processors that has cache or memory that are close to one another.
The NUMA node contains cores, and the core is the processing unit, it’s the physical core within the NUMA node.
If you heard about Hyper-threading sure you did, HT is the Logical Processor, and the Logical Processor is not a physical processor. The LP is a thread, you can think of it as a logical computing engine.
Now we come to the virtualization layer, inside the Virtual Machine you have virtual processors, and the virtual processors are different from logical processors, they don’t met 1 to 1 to a physical processor, the Virtual Processors get time slices and which then get scheduled by the hypervisor. You can have your VP (Virtual Processors) be scheduled on multiple LP (Logical Processors) inside the Hyper-V host.