In Windows Server 2016, Microsoft added a new type of storage called Storage Spaces Direct (aka S2D). S2D enables building highly available storage systems with local attached disks, and without the need to have any external SAS fabric such as shared JBODs or enclosures. This is the first true Software-Defined Storage (SDS) from Microsoft. Software-Defined Storage is a concept, which involves storing data without dedicated hardware.
In June 2018, Microsoft made a big announcements for Storage Spaces Direct that will be shipped in Windows Server 2019. One of the announcement was to bring two-node at the edge, and the idea here is with any two-node cluster whether is running Windows, Nutanix, VMware or anything else, any two-node cluster need some kind of a quorum solution, it needs a tie-breaker to achieve quorum and guarantee high availability. Microsoft did already a great job in the previous release of Windows Server, you could use File Share Witness or Cloud Witness by leveraging an Azure blob storage for quorum. However, File Share Witness requires another Windows server to be available in the environment, and Cloud Witness requires Internet access. So what about scenarios with branch offices and retail stores that have no Internet to access the cloud, and no other Windows infrastructure to provide a file share?
For these type of scenarios, Microsoft introduced in Windows Server 2019 a new witness solution called “USB Witness” by leveraging a simple USB Thumb Drive as the witness! This makes Windows Server 2019 Hyper-Converged a great platform to deliver true two-node cluster, without Internet, without another server, and without even Active Directory.
In this quick blog post, I will show you how to configure file share witness with USB Thumb Drive on Windows Server 2019.
Before we start configuring file share witness with USB Thumb Drive, we have a couple of small requirements that we need to look at:
- Router, Switch, NAS:
- You can use any router, switch, or even a NAS storage from any major vendor such as QNAP and Synology.
- Need to have USB port.
- Need to have SMB 2 or SMB 3 support. SMB 1 is not supported. It’s also worth mentioning to remove and uninstall SMB version 1.0 if you are still using it. The original SMB 1 protocol is nearly 30 years old, and like much of the software made in the 80’s, it was designed for a world that no longer exists!
- USB Thumb Drive:
- Any USB storage size will work.
- You can use the cheapest USB thumb drive that you can find.
For this example, I am using a modern router in my home office with USB and SMB 2 support.
How it works
Simply insert the USB thumb drive into the USB port on your router.
Use the router’s UI to configure the share name, username, and password for access.
And finally, login to any member node of the cluster and run the following PowerShell command.
Set-ClusterQuorum -FileShareWitness \\172.16.20.152\USBDisk1 -Credential $(Get-Credential)
If you open Failover Cluster Manager (FCM), you can see the File Share Witness is Online.
When you navigate to your File Share Witness share on the USB disk, you will see a folder created for your Cluster which contains two files:
- The VerifyShareWitnessAccess.txt text file, to verify the write access to the share from each cluster node.
- The Witness.log is under 1 KB in size which contains the membership information for the Cluster.
You have now successfully configured a File Share Witness on a USB Thumb Drive, for the cluster hosting your workloads.
And that’s it. Enjoy Windows Server 2019!
Thank you for reading my blog.
If you have any questions or feedback, please leave a comment.